Concept Analysis

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Conflict Management in Nursing: Concept Analysis


This concept analysis explores the terms leadership and management and their application in the Clinical Nurse Manager position. Clinical Nurse Manager leadership and management preparation, understanding and application impacts on patient care delivery and outcomes (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2007; Herrin & Spears, 2007; Stanley, 2006). Interpretation and understanding of the concepts of leadership and management are inconsistent, and the terms are used interchangeably within verbal dialogue and literature. In addition, leadership and management are often specific to the context in which they are used.

Conflict Management in Nursing: Concept Analysis


Nurses progressing to management positions remain largely uneducated, unsupported and with no or very little orientation or succession planning pertaining to management skills and knowledge (Heller, Drenkard, Esposito-Herr, Romano, Tom & Valentine, 2004). Tensions between leadership and management discourse and being unprepared for the CNM position can lead to unconscious incompetence (Hancock, 2008). Hancock (2008) draws on the work of Abraham Maslow and states unconscious incompetence is the first of four learning states. Put very simply, unconscious incompetence is when you don't know what you don't know. Unconscious incompetence can result in disenfranchising nursing professional and clinical growth, recruitment and retention issues, compromising patient outcomes and substandard care delivery (Gould, Kelly, Goldstone & Maidwell, 2001; Judkins 2007; Mrayyan, 2004; Schmidt, 1999). Additionally, often the most senior nurse on the ward may have developed skills in leadership. It is these informal leadership skills that are relied upon to fulfil the management role (Boulding, 2004). Heller, et al (2004) agrees there is an educational gap between nurses moving from acute care delivery to the manager position. Furthermore, providing leadership whilst being part of the nursing team, compared to functioning effectively as the front-line manager, leaves nurses unprepared for the complex requirements of the job.


Walker and Avant (1995) have adapted Wilson's (1963) eleven-step concept analysis framework to provide an eight-step concept analysis process. They suggest the steps occur simultaneously and proclaim how simple their concept analysis framework is to follow. Moreover, Walker and Avant assert how the framework easily refines concepts as it enables the writer a structure to extract meanings. Axley (2008) concurs and says when exploring specific concepts the use of Walker and Avant's (1995) concept analysis framework serves to clarify meaning and application in nursing. Alternatively, Bell and Duffy (2008) propose Rodgers (1989) six-step evolutionary concept analysis framework is worth pursuing as it provides opportunity to explore both distinct and discrete meanings of complex concepts. Rodgers and Knafl (2000) claim the six-step evolutionary method has subtle differences to that of other concept analysis frameworks. For example, they suggest concepts should be examined apart from their context or any other relationship. So, if the cup was being analysed it would be imperative the writer had not used or seen one before. Rodgers and Knafl (2000) say there can be profound effects on the focus of enquiry resulting in altering the interpretations if the concept is examined in its ...
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