ALTERNATIVE CONCEPTIONS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE10
DOES EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE EXIST?11
CAN THE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE OF LEADERS BE OBJECTIVELY MEASURED?12
IS EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE NECESSARY FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP?13
Leadership and the Ability Model of Emotional Intelligence14
Using Emotion To Facilitate Thinking15
Emotional Intelligence in a Bsiness
Presently there is no one definition of emotional intelligence (EI) that is universally accepted. Psychologists have approached EI from different vantage points. Some researchers see it as the interplay of cognitive ability with emotional knowledge and regulation and have utilized self-report measures to assess the construct (e.g., Reuven Bar-On, Daniel Goleman). Other researchers have viewed EI as a distinct intelligence and have measured it in the same way as traditional IQ (e.g., John Mayer, Peter Salovey, and David Caruso). EI is a term that has been defined and revised by theorists and researchers in the field of psychology. A useful definition has been proposed by Mayer and Salovey, who have noted that EI is the ability to perceive accurately; appraise and express emotions; access and/or generate feelings when facilitating thought; understand emotions and emotional knowledge; and growth.
What Is Emotional Intelligence?
The term emotional intelligence entered the American lexicon in 1995 when Daniel Goleman published his book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. It became a bigger buzzword, when Nancy Gibbs wrote an October 2, 1995, Time magazine cover story, titled 'The EQ Factor.' Her emphasis was that new brain research suggested that emotions, not IQ, may be the true measure of human intelligence.
Though Goleman received the most attention for his groundbreaking work, Peter Salovey and John Mayer originally used the term emotional intelligence in 1990 and later refined their definition in 1997. From their theoretical perspective, EI refers specifically to the cooperative combination of intelligence and emotion. The authors label their model as a four-branch ability model and divide the abilities and skills of EI into four areas: the abilities to (1) perceive emotions, (2) use emotions to facilitate thought, (3) understand emotions, and (4) manage emotions.
Branch 1 reflects the perception of emotions and involves the capacity to recognize emotions in another person's facial and postural expressions. Branch 2, facilitation, involves the capacity of emotions to assist thinking. Branch 3, the understanding of emotion, reflects the capacity to analyze emotions, appreciate their probable trends over time, and understand their outcomes. Branch 4 reflects the management of emotions, which involves the rest of personality. Emotions are managed in the context of the individual's goals, self-knowledge, and social awareness.
A second definition of EI was postulated by Goleman based on the work of Salovey. He defined EI as the capacity for recognizing one's own feelings and those of others, for motivating oneself, and for managing emotions well in oneself and in one's relationships. He sees these abilities as distinct from, but complementary to, cognitive intelligence traditionally measured by IQ ...