Enzyme Regulation

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Enzyme regulation

Enzyme regulation


Enzymes are catalysts to speed up chemical reactions. These made by a strain of micro organisms like esterase, pectinase. These microorganisms fed and nurtured until they form enzymes. Then the fermentation broth recovers the desired end product which sold to the market. A large quantity of micro organisms can produce a large amount of enzymes. This process of multiplying microorganisms to obtain a larger quantity of enzymes known as fermentation. This process initiates by a production strain in which industrial enzymes obtained. One of the most primary steps in enzyme production is sterilization in which all irrelevant native microorganisms removed otherwise the desired quantity of enzymes cannot be produced. The process followed by downstream processing in which the broth removed using filtration processes. Then the enzymes got separated from the water through evaporation. In the end, these enzymes formulated and standardized in the forms of liquid, powder, or granules. There are many uses of enzymes in the new biotechnology industries. Their use has been made more profitable by finding ways to use them over and over again by immobilizing them. The outstanding features of the enzymes are their catalytic power and specificity. Moreover, the activity of numerous enzymes regulated. Almost all known enzymes are proteins; however, there are molecules RNA (ribosome's) catalytically active, indicating that the proteins have no conclusive monopoly as catalysts (Kurumbail , 2001).


Regulation of catalytic activity: This is a very fine control and very short term. This in see is subdivided into:

Changes in the covalent structure of the enzyme reversibly, such as phosphorylation, methylation and farnesylation.

Conformational changes of the enzyme by binding of regulatory molecules. This is the typical model of allosteric regulation is also reversible.

Thus, we recall the different types of regulation:



Number of active protein

Regulation of the activity

Covalent modification of the enzyme


Mechanisms of Regulation

General: Based on the availability of substrate or product. For example, the availability of glucose increases the flow of glycolysis, the same way that if we remove pyruvate.

Specific: The regulation of the activity of one or more of the enzymes of the pathway. For what is changed is the speed, let the equations that govern it. V = K [S]; Vruta = [E] [metabolite]. Through it we can get an idea of ??what changed. Types of Enzymes and Their Importance in Regulating

We may wonder whether an enzyme can perform michaeliana control through a metabolic pathway. To try to define it, no more than choosing a value for [S] small and large in relation to Km (as equivalent to the way we used to determine [S] to Vmax, depending Km). The difference in catch [S] and Km / 9 or 9 ° Km Vmax is 0.1 to 0.9 Vmax. This means, for an increase of approximately 9 times requires the addition of substrate in 81 times, something happens physiologically, because the concentrations of the metabolites are small and cannot vary much and that would break the osmotic balance. In fact what is observed is that small changes in [S] ...
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