Essay Questions

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Essay Questions

Essay Questions

Models of Crisis Assessment and Intervention

There are three primary methods of assessing clients in crisis: standardized inventories, general personality tests interpreted in the light of the crisis, and client interviews. The interview is the most commonly used method. The models of crisis assessment and intervention outlined below, therefore, use the interview as a primary assessment tool. (Roberts, 2005)

Gilliland's Six-Step Model, which includes three listening and three action steps, is a useful crisis intervention model. Attending, observing, understanding, and responding with empathy, genuineness, respect, acceptance, nonjudgment, and caring are important elements of listening. Action steps are carried out in a nondirective and collaborative manner, which attends to the assessed needs of clients as well as the environmental supports available to them (Roberts, 2005)

defining the problem

ensuring client safety

providing support

2. Action

examining alternatives

making plans

obtaining commitment

Seven-Stage Model of Crisis Intervention

This model, developed by Roberts contains seven stages: (Roberts, 2005)

1. Plan and conduct a thorough biopsychosocial and crisis assessment. This also includes assessing suicidal and homicidal risk, need for medical attention, drug and alcohol use, and negative coping strategies. Assessing resilience and protective factors as well as family and other support networks is helpful.

2. Make psychological contact and establish rapport. By conveying respect and acceptance, the responder develops a solid therapeutic relationship with the client. Displaying a nonjudgmental attitude and neutrality are important in crisis work.

3. Examine and define the dimensions of the problem or crisis. Identifying any issues and challenges the client may have faced, especially the precipitant to the crisis will provide valuable insight into the presenting problem.

4. Encourage an exploration of feelings and emotions. This can be achieved by actively listening to the client and responding with encouraging statements.

Reflection and paraphrasing can also help this process.

5. Explore past positive coping strategies and alternatives. Viewing the individual as a resourceful and resilient person with an array of potential resources and alternatives can help this process. Crisis workers should be creative and flexible in resolving crisis situations.

6. Implement the action plan. At this stage, identify supportive individuals and contact referral sources. The client should be able to implement some coping strategies.

7. Establish a follow-up plan. It is important to follow up with clients after the initial intervention to determine the client's status and ensure that the crisis has been resolved. (Roberts, & Ottens, 2005)

Long-term therapy

There was substantial agreement on when it was appropriate to use planned short-term therapy (PST: defined as up to 12 sessions) or to prefer long-term therapy (LT). For the Adjustment Disorder %95 of the clinicians recommended PST, while for Dysthymic Disorder %87 suggested LT, and %91 preferred LT for Borderline cases. The diagnoses accounted for %52 of the variance. There is remarkable unity among the clinicians at JBFCS on the appropriateness of PST versus LT treatment, with only a relative minority deviating from the trend. However, and examination of agency records revealed that PST was recommended far less often than would appear these findings based on vignettes. (Roberts, & Ottens, 2005)

It is also significant that client gender, race and ...
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