The first European settlement - If you always start the story with the first European colonies in Canada, we can say that Canada is a very young country. The first European settlement, in fact, was created only in the seventeenth century, although the Icelandic sagas tell of a certain Bjarni Herjolfsson that reached the coast of North America between 985 and 986 (but none of these legends has a historical basis). So from a historical point of view, the first European to reach Canada was an Italian, John Cabot, who, thanks to the protection of Henry VII's England, in June 1497 touched the eastern coasts of the area between the Cape Breton Island and the region now called Newfoundland.
Between the end of '400 and early '500 there was a severe "competition" between European nations, Spain, Portugal, and France and, of course, Britain. Apart from looking for new territories to conquer, seas Canadian stocks were very important for the markets of the Old Continent and the animals could draw valuable furs. The French - Over the centuries, Spain and Portugal suffered a deep crisis that cut off the conquest of North America, leaving the field open to other competitors. In 1608 France established the first colony in the region of Quebec and then go more and more inward along the Ottawa River, reaching the regions of the 'Ontario (south-east) and Manitoba (Central and Eastern Europe). The economy of New France (this was the name of the colony) was based on fishing and hunting, but especially the fur trade with the mainland. While from a political point of view, in the French colonies was the feudal system, where the nobles gave extensive lands in use overseas.
The English - Unlike the French, the British, settled in the eastern areas of Canada (Newfoundland and Nova Scotia), bordering the famous Thirteen Colonies that gave life to the United States. Even the British dedicated themselves to the fur trade, which at the time of the sale yielded more gold. Therefore, the competition between French colonists and the British for control of the territory led to several conflicts. The two European powers were fighting not only the vast areas of North America, but also the West Indies (i.e. the Caribbean islands). The fighting harder (and final) there was in early 1700 and saw the victory of the British. By the ...