History Essays

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History Essays

History Essays: Long Essays

1) Detail the process of Mummification. What is involved? Why? Be certain to discuss the rituals involved, the objects needed, and their significance to the deceased on the journey they would make to the afterlife upon completion of the rituals. What could hinder this process?

Egyptians loved life, and it was important for them to continue to enjoy even after death. The Egyptians believed that their soul could rest peacefully in mummies. Mummification in the Ancient Egypt was part of a funeral ritual. In ancient Egypt, the preservation of the body was a very important symbol. The destruction of it was a very serious risk. The Egyptians believed in immortality (Belozerskaya & Lapatin 2004).

In one workshop, the embalmers wash and prepare the body to carry out various operations of mummification, which lasts for seven decades, or 70 days. The eviscerated body is sun-dried and coated with several layers of vegetable oils (pine resin, oils and ointments) and animal (beeswax because of its hydrophobic properties and antibacterial elements). This step is followed by laying the strips in the form of preservative clothing. This follows the disposal of amulets on the deceased (Grant 1953). Then the body is placed in a painted and engraved sarcophagus. Sometimes the face is covered with a mask with the features of its appearance. Some organs, washed with palm wine and roasted spices, are kept within four canopies (vases) with the image of Horus. Inside the canopy jar of Amset lie the stomach and the large intestine. The liver and gall bladder are stored in the canopic jar.

The family and the mourners follow the body and find a procession led by priests, taking the deceased to his final resting place. Here, the high priest, according to a well-defined ritual, will complete the final, providing a sacred gesture on the seven openings of the head of the mummy to revive the senses. The offerings are placed and then sealed in a tomb.

2) Discuss the differences between Spartan and Athenian women. What is any are some of the similarities? Touch upon marriage, childhood, duties once married and expectations from family and community

Greek society, which has left a great and wonderful legacy for our present Western civilization, unfortunately, has been a male dominated society that relegated women to play a minor role in the Greek polis. In general, we can say that women were matched almost to the status of slaves, since they had no civil rights and could not participate in politics, as they were not considered as citizens of the state. Taking part in public events, assemblies, drama, games, rituals and competitions was the monopoly of free men (with limited exceptions). The social status of women in Greece was worse than other older societies (like Egypt) and other more modern (like Rome), where women were freer and had relative independence and freedom (Grant 1953).

In Athens, the woman (who had no legal or political rights), should remain under the authority of a guardian all ...
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