Information And Communication Technology

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Information and Communication Technology

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction3

Chapter 2: Literature Review13

Information and Communication Technology13

ICT Conceptual foundations13

Contextual components of ICT development and use18

ICTs in perform and organisations of reference20

The function of technological artifacts encompassing ICTs24

ICT in Health sector29



ICT in Learning32

ICT for Developing Countries33

Digital Divide34

Healthcare for Developing Countries and Rural Areas36

Learning for developing countries38

Healthcare & Learning in Developing Countries constraints40








Collaborative Medical technologies46

Web based collaborative framework46

Mobile phones and PDA49

Web based applications51

Open source applications52



Other Collaborative Medical technologies for developing countries57


End Notes60

Chapter 1: Introduction

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a broad term that concerns using digital technologies to help individuals, organisations and businesses to facilitate communication and use information by electronic means.

Various studies and researches consider developing ICT in different sectors such as using computers, internet and mobile phones have high prospect in enhancing efficiency and effectiveness of methods production and facilitate the manners of managing information in different parts . ICT has a huge impact on education, learning, economy, health sectors and societies worldwide.

Currently, internet users and people who have access to computers at home are more than quarter of the world populations, subscribers to fixed broadband have raise up in the last five years significantly; in 2004 there was 150 millions while there are 500 millions subscriber by end of 2009 . Those figures indicate the fast diffusion of using ICT globally. In addition to that, ICT and digital technology bring a social and economic revolution for the developing countries .

Developments in information and communication technologies (ICTs) during the last quarter of the 20th century heralded an information age in which economic and social activity has been widened, deepened and transformed. The more optimistic projections suggest that a computerized and networked world would not only ensure a more widespread and rapid growth of employment, productivity and output, but would also improve access to facilities that enhance the quality of life. In this paper we consider some of the technological changes which could affect health conditions in developing countries. We focus on some experiences of using ICTs in the health sector in the Developing countries to indicate how the potential of ICTs can be exploited. We also consider the constraints on the realization of such potential. The conceptual framework of this paper is based on the notion that ICTs can affect health conditions in poor countries both directly and indirectly. It can work directly by improving health care provision and disease prevention. It also works indirectly on the health status of the population through its effects on the broader determinants of health, such as growth, the economic position of households, and the social infrastructure . The effect of ICTs on health differs from its impact on other sectors in crucial ways. Achieving some of the benefits of ICTs requires that health workers are reached and not necessarily the final beneficiaries, thus, the cost of a given quantum of effect are reduced.

Developments in ICTs

Recent research on information and communication technology (ICT) development and use has focused on practice-level explanations of ...
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