Law To Raise Cage Free & Range Free Animals

Read Complete Research Material

Law to Raise Cage Free & Range Free Animals


The purpose of this research report is to make an analysis of why should congress pass a law for farmers to raise cage free and range free animals. Pressure from animal rights groups is resulting in laws dictating how farm animals are housed. In the case of laying hens, the push is to move producers from conventional colony cages to cages with more room and amenities such as perches and dusting boxes, free range systems (in which chickens are raised outside on pasture with shelter at night) or cage-free confinement on litter. (Guy, 72).


The analysis was ordered by Congress in the Food, Conservation & Energy Act of 2008, which directed that, ERS:

? Determine the extent to which animal manure is utilized as fertilizer for crops, including agronomic practices and species;

? Evaluate the impact on agricultural operations and consumers that would occur from limitations on the utilization of animal manure as fertilizer, and

? Evaluate the impact on agricultural operations that would occur from increased utilization of animal manure for bio energy production.

Animal rights groups argue that laying hens' welfare will be improved if they aremoved to these alternative housing systems. However, research shows that all systems have pros and cons — many of which do not benefi t the welfare of the hen or farmworkers. Air quality has become an increasing concern in all industries, including animal agriculture(Harrison, 120). A 2006 Ohio State University study found airborne contaminants (composed of organic dusts, gases, endotoxins, fungi, bacteria, feathers and skin) in all poultry production facilities(Kjorstad, 3).

In 1999, Swedish researchers evaluated different aspects of laying hen-housing systems on human health by comparing air quality in different systems. Dust levels were found to be highest in facilities raising laying hens on fresh bedding and lowest in conventionally caged laying-hen facilities. The airborne endotoxin levels were lowest in systems raising cage-free laying hens on old bedding and highest in those raising cage-free laying hens on fresh bedding.

Furthermore, the Ohio State study found that cage-free housing systems tend to have poorer air quality than both conventional and furnished cages. Raising laying hens in a cage-free environment can negatively impact both bird and human health. The hen's behavior of dust bathing and movement on a litter-based floor increases the concentration of inhalable dust levels(Guy, 72). The decreased air quality in the hen house can contribute to a stronger inflammation reaction and bronchial responsiveness in human workers creating an occupational health hazard.

The Swedish researchers found that based on white blood cell counts and immune cell types present within the nasal passageway, all test-subject humans exposed to laying-hen facilities had an immune reaction(Harrison, 120). A stronger immune response was elicited from humans exposed to cage-free housing systems than those exposed to conventionally caged systems. While all systems stimulated the immune response, cage-free systems with old bedding stimulated a higher production of immune cells than cage-free systems with fresh bedding(Jones, 125). Therefore, all laying hen systems likely stimulate an ...
Related Ads
  • Raise The Red Lantern

    Raise the Red Lantern is one of the more sublimely b ...

  • The History Of Free Speec...

    The First Amendment, as applied theory and a legal c ...

  • Do We Have Free Will?

    Are we totally described in terms of deterministic n ...

  • Free College Education

    The literature analysis also showed that an increase ...

  • Free Will

    Are we totally described in terms of deterministic n ...