Literature Review

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Literature Review

Literature Review

This chapter describes the theoretical frame of references that are used to guide this thesis. It begins with an overview of English as a secondary language (ESL), importance of ESL in modern world, ESL writing in higher education, peer-response group, stimulated recall and collaborative dialogue.

English as Secondary Language (ESL)

A Second language, as explained by Jenkins (2000), also called L2 is a language learned besides the mother tongue. This second language is acquired for purposes of convenience, necessity (in the case of immigrants) or, more commonly, to use as a lingua franca. The most widely acquired second language across the globe is the English Language because it enjoys the status of being the international language. Benson & Byrd (1994) discusses that there is a distinguished concept of bilingual second language, since the same individual may have more than one language as a native or mother and in this case, it might not apply the name of a second language. Second language acquisition is a process of learning a language by an individual who has mastered a language or native language. In addition Jenkins (2000) also recognizes it as a part of applied linguistics and the process of second language acquisition differs in its early stages as compared to the process of acquiring the first language, partly because it requires different cognitive skills. In part this is the reason why the second language acquisition is more difficult and requires more time learning the language. Grabe (1991, p.102) also views it and explains that it especially happens when the second language is structurally very different from the first language.

According to Gerace (2012), when a study was carried out on ESL students, it was revealed that probably 60 percent of non-English speaking population learning English as a second language is somewhere on the level of saying that "I own a dictionary" and "we all learned a little". In the remaining 40 percent, those are included who are in school and they had the opportunity to learn English. Mullen (1984) also reveals that, learning experience in ESL schools is quite different from that of at home. Effective, proven technologies allow students to study English language and its applications. The graduates can then apply in English native countries freely, without feeling the constraints. Learn English within the confines of a school has its advantages. Exciting classes, which use the latest technology and group learning that enhances the learning experience. According to Mullen (1984), one of the fundamental principles of the techniques used at schools is that a student in every class receives small amounts of new information, which is put into practice, supplementing the previous lessons learned.

Importance of English in Modern World

According to Jenkins (2000) English is identified as the official and working language of the United Nations. All kinds of summits and meetings of Heads of State, signing laws and decrees, negotiations and discussions - all are conducted in English. International trade, the banking system, the activities of the transportation system ...
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