Mass Pollution Allowing For Organism To Adapt And Evolve Within The Environment Has Caused A Domino Effect In The Escalation Of Complex Viruses' Untreatable Common Antibiotics, Resulting In More Deaths
Mass pollution allowing for organism to adapt and evolve within the environment has caused a domino effect in the escalation of complex viruses' untreatable common antibiotics, resulting in more deaths
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION1
Background of the Study1
Aims and Objectives2
Significance of the Study3
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW5
Environmental exposure and human health5
Antimicrobial resistance in the environment6
Antibiotic resistance mechanisms8
Genes (DNA) in the environment8
Gene detection techniques10
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY11
Description of Data Source11
Secondary Data Analysis12
CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION13
Effect of growth rate15
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION19
Limitations of the Study20
Implications of the Study21
The birth of modem, public health, according to this rhetoric, was in response to just such an imbalance engendered by the insalubrious character of the industrial environment. The problem of the public health was inherent in the new industrial civilization. The same process that created the market economy, the factory, and the modem urban environment also brought into being the health problems that made necessary new means of disease prevention and health protection. The objective of public health is to restore, through education and medical intervention, the physical and social environment to a state where it is believed to be conducive, rather than harmful, to the health of the social body. The focus is in remaking the modern urban environment in order to restore some imagined pre-existing balance between the population and the environment. Public health assumed that work for itself since it believed that it was too important to be left to the vagaries of disposition.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
An estimated 50 million pounds of antibiotics were produced in the United Sates in 2000 with approximately 40 to 50 percent of that total (20 to 25 million pounds) used in animal agriculture (80 percent of which was used for non-therapeutic purposes such as growth promotion and disease prevention) (Garabrant, 2007). It has been reported that a significant fraction of the antibiotics fed to animals (25 to 75 percent) are excreted unaltered in feces, persist in soil after land application (Aitio, 2008) and may exert a selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistant microbial strains including the multiple resistant "superbugs" (Haskell, 2000).
Globally an estimated 380 million pounds of antibiotics were produced in 2006 (estimate based on 40 percent of total production used in agricultural settings), with approximately 150 million pounds utilized in animal husbandry applications (Siddiqui, 2007), compounding the world wide problem of microbial antibiotic resistance development and propagation due to the increased use, abuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents.
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID, part of ...