Muslim Brotherhood

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Muslim Brotherhood: History and Role in the Middle East

Muslim Brotherhood: History and Role in the Middle East


This article examines the founding, social origins, and ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood in Syria from 1945 to 1958. The organization was influenced ideologically by the original Egyptian Brotherhood, but its founding was essentially a bold move. Unlike its Egyptian counterpart during this period, the Syrian Brotherhood was a participant in parliamentary politics (Zahid, 2009). Orthodox Sunni group established Muslim Brotherhood in 1929 in Egypt. In addition to Egypt, it has been active in Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Syria. Because of its opposition to government policies and allegations of involvement in acts of terrorism (e.g., a massacre of cadets in Aleppo on 16 June 1979), the brotherhood has been periodically banned by the authorities in Egypt and other Muslim countries.

History of Muslim Brotherhoods in Middle East

The main view and vision of Muslim Brotherhood was to create such a brotherhood and unity among all Muslims disregard of country, nations and differences which come under one purpose of spreading Islam and following the religion. The theme was to get free from foreign powers and implement a religious system (Yermami, 2011). By creating Islamic unity, spreading of the religion would be achieved, the value of ethics, freedom, justice, equality and commitment towards Allah.

It all started in 1928 by the Ismaili Muslims, lead by Sheikh Hassan al-Banna. The association was aimed at spiritual devotion to the faith and principles. It moved to Cairo in 1932 which became a place for Muslims to meet all around the world. It did start political activities in 1938 (Harris, 1964). They offered the solution to the social and economic problems in the country by offering all the parliamentary system be implemented on the foundation according to the teachings of Holy Quran. Their political objectives stated that foreign authority is disapproved, and no decision made on injustice be accepted. It all stated that this country be run by following the religion Islam and all people should abide to it.

The primary objective was to implement the constitution according to the teachings of Quran, Allah being the main objective and Holy Prophet being the main leader and Jihad being the leading way and Shahadat being the highest ranking death. According to the head, Al-Banna told that the true Islam should be implemented, and reformers like Muhammad Abduh and Rashid Rida should be followed as guides. He added that the due to the Western influence on the nation, the real dominance of Islam has vanished. He elaborated that Sharia Law be followed, and Quran and Sunnah be followed in all aspects everywhere (Zahid, 2009).

In the early life, the movement headed as political and social movement. They protected workers against foreign and monopolist companies, and institutions such as hospitals and schools. It had an aggressive approach towards independent organizations and trade unions. It still held the view of traditional and conservations women traditions followed. It became involved with the labor movement, unemployment benefits and trade ...
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