Perception Of Science

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Perception of Science

Perception of Science

Assessment 5.1

Describe the development of a scientific theory, highlight the processes involved (P1)

The theory of evolution by Darwin is selected as the scientific theory and the main point of its development are discussed as follows. According to the theory of naturalist Charles Darwin (1809-1882), all living things found on Earth are the product of a long series of transformations called biological evolution. In this way, Darwin explains the diversity of living species and their transformation into other new species only from material causes. This theory is radically opposed to the idea that it is God who would directly create the Earth and all beings who inhabit it. The place of human beings in the universe therefore takes a whole new meaning from Darwin, because now it is no longer the centre of creation. The human species is nothing more than a species itself derived from other animal species. In short, it is now claimed that man descended from monkeys lived a few million years.

He notes that individuals of the same species are not completely identical and observed in some species a very large number of slight variations that can be transmitted from one generation to another. By his theory, it will demonstrate that the emergence of new living species is based on the phenomenon of biological variation. Darwin argued that human beings can not prevent or produce these variations. We can only play with the changes already possible. In this regard, we note that modern science has discovered processes that prevent or produce an infinite number of variations. However, the variability of individuals can not alone explain the formation of species. All varieties within species and between species derive from natural selection and the struggle for existence.

Observing the multiplicity of life forms in nature, we find that the different characteristics affecting the bodies of animals and plants can be inherited, which is the starting point of the process of natural selection. Darwin will distinguish three kinds of variations: a) those which are harmful b) those which are favourable c) those which have no effect. He then goes on to say that changes can lead to the disappearance of the individuals involved tend to disappear while those that provide certain benefits to individuals involved tend to be transmitted. In other words, things that are better adapted to their environment tend to survive longer and reproduce passing on their characteristics to their offspring while those less adapted to their environment tend to disappear. Often, we will summarize the process of natural selection by talking about the survival of the fittest. It is important to remember that this is not necessarily to be the strongest that survive and reproduce, but the one that is best suited to its habitat (Steinke, 2005).

By this theory Charles Darwin is able to explain the diversity and richness of nature from a common ancestor. It is now also able to provide a satisfactory explanation about the extinction of certain ...
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