The Gestalt psychologists of Germany, Marx Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, and Kurt Koffka, emphasized the importance of organizational processes in perception, learning, and problem solving. They also believed that individuals were predisposed to organize information in particular ways. There are several basic ideas of the Gestalt Theory including perception is often different from reality, the organism structures and organizes experience, and problem solving involves restructuring and insight.
Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality in psychology. Much like Sigmund Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. Unlike Freud's theory of psychosexual stages, Erikson's theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan.
One of the main elements of Erikson's psychosocial stage theory is the develoment of ego identity.1 Ego identity is the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction. According to Erikson, our ego identity is constantly changing due to new experience and information we acquire in our daily interactions with others. In addition to ego identity, Erikson also believed that a sense of competence also motivates behaviors and actions. Each stage in Erikson's theory is concerned with becoming competent in an area of life. If the stage is handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery, which he sometimes referred to as ego strength or ego quality.2 If the stage is managed poorly, the person will emerge with a sense of inadequacy.
In each stage, Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. In Erikson's view, these conflicts are centered on either developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality. During these times, the potential for personal growth is high, but so is the potential for failure.
Psychosocial Stage 1 - Trust vs. Mistrust
* The first stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life.
* Because an infant is utterly dependent, the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child's caregivers.
* If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable.
Psychosocial Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
* The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control.
* Like Freud, Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part of this process. However, Erikson's reasoning was quite different then that of Freud's. Erikson believe that learning to control one's body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence.
* Other important events include gaining more control over food choices, toy preferences, ...