Smoking Cessation

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Barriers to smoking cessation among Cypriot adults

Barriers to smoking cessation among Cypriot adults


Tobacco use is the number one preventable cause of death in the United States, accounting for 19% of all deaths or 400,000 deaths per year. These deaths include the tobacco-attributable mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease, lung disease, low birth weight and other problems of infancy, and burns. Tobacco consumption is rising in many parts of the world. If current smoking patterns continue, 7 million of the world's 10 million annual deaths from tobacco in the year 2025 will occur in developing countries (Bobo, Hoffman, 1995).

Cigarette smoking is more common among individuals of lower social class. In the United States, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking has been reported at about 40% among those compared to 22% in the general population (Ambler, Royston, 2007). These statistics suggest that, in addition to public health measures to prevent tobacco addiction from occurring in the first place, effective methods are needed to treat tobacco addiction individuals (Knudsen, Roman, 2007).

This paper reviews barriers to smoking cessation among other persons. In particular, literature is examined concerning barriers to the provision of smoking cessation interventions populations. Major obstacles are posed by the health care financing system, patient characteristics, attitudes and skills of practitioners, limitations in the effectiveness of treatment, and inefficiencies in the health care delivery system. Some of these obstacles are illustrated by epidemiological data from persons in the State of Kansas (Bobo, Hoffman, 1995).

Barriers to Smoking Cessation

Increasing rates of smoking and low rates of cessation in adults have been identified as “growing health concerns.” Of particular concern are those adults, who are not enrolled in college; who are unemployed, underemployed, or economically disadvantaged; and who are a target market of the tobacco industry. The overall decline in smoking rates in most of the US population has been attributed to a comprehensive approach that includes environmental and policy approaches (e.g., cigarette taxes and smoking restrictions). However, because these approaches have not been implemented equally across all communities and population subgroups, some groups are more vulnerable and less likely to want to quit smoking (Ziedonis, et al. , 2006).

Currently, little is known about environmental factors in urban communities that either facilitate smoking or act as barriers to cessation. Access to cigarettes and sales of single cigarettes—“loosies”—may be 2 of these factors. We examined the (1) availability of cigarettes, (2) sales of single cigarettes, and (3) positive social norms toward smoking.

Smoking cessation strategies need to take into consideration environmental influences, such as the sale of single cigarettes, particularly to inner-city African American adults. This study found that the sale of single cigarettes was more pervasive than previously reported and that most of the sales occurred on the street. This easy and affordable way to purchase cigarettes from street vendors and stores undermines tax policies, promotes smoking as a normative behavior, and may contribute to high smoking rates in some inner-city communities. Although the US Food and Drug Administration attempted to eradicate the legal and ...
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