The Crusades

Read Complete Research Material

The crusades


The Crusades were military expeditions planned and carried out by western European Christians. The crusades started around 1095. The purpose of these crusades was to overtake and gain control of the Holy Land from the Muslims. The Holy Land was Jerusalem and the Christians believed that gaining control of it was their fate. The pope would gather the people together and incite them(Hallam pp 155-155).


The origin of the crusades was a result of the expanding Turks in the middle east. These Turkish forces invaded Byzantium, a Christian empire. The crusaders were a militia, sent out to recover what they thought was theirs. The first crusade was essentially started by Pope Urban II. On November 27, 1095, he gathered his followers outside the French city of Clermont-Ferrand. He preached to these people and told them that action needed to be taken. In response, the people cheered and planned their attack. Urban II brought together all of the bishops and urged them to talk to their friends and fellow villagers and to encourage them to participate in the crusades.

The First Crusaders were made up of a group of very and valorous soldiers. They did many great things, and took the vast city of Jerusalem. There may not have been much motive at first, but a great plot against the Muslims started, and many people joined in the large stride to rid of the many invaders. These invaders were people like the Muslims. Peter the hermit was the first and most valiant man to lead this band of Crusaders, and in the end they did what they sought to do(Villegas-Aristizábal pp. 63-129).

Small groups started to form and each group would be self- directing. All the groups planned their own ways to the Constantinople, where they would meet and regroup. They would attack the Turkish forces in Constantinople and hope to regain control of the city. The large Christian armies talked to Alexius I Comnenus, the Byzantium emperor, and agreed to return any of his old land that was recaptured. The armies were skeptical of this demand but agreed anyway. The first attack by the crusaders was on Anatolian, the Turkish capital.

Meanwhile the Byzantians were also trying to recapture Anatolian, and later that year, the city surrendered to the Byzantians instead of the crusaders. The Byzantians were using the crusaders as pawns to achieve their own goals. The crusaders again met and crushed the Turkish army. The crusaders scored a great victory and boosted the troops' moral. The crusaders captured Antioch and also held off relief forces sent to help the Turks. The crusaders then moved on to their main goal-Jerusalem! The city was under Egyptian control and was heavily guarded. The crusaders set up siege machines and called for reinforcements, finally forcing the Egyptians to surrender. Everyone in the city was massacred in the belief that the blood of the former holders purified it. The crusaders kept control of the city for the next generation or so and ...
Related Ads