THE IMPACTS OF OIL SPILLS ON MARINE AND TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS
The Impacts of Oil Spills on Marine and Terrestrial Ecosystems
The impacts of oil spills on marine and terrestrial ecosystems
Man has caused disasters on ecosystems by killing large numbers of species all kinds. Among the most serious disasters that threaten biodiversity are the oil spills in the seas and oceans. Crude oil contamination or refined oil (diesel, gasoline, kerosene and other products obtained by distillation fractional and chemical processing of crude oil) is generated by accidental or deliberately from different sources. Oil pollution comes from Tanker accidents and leaks in offshore drilling equipment. Source pollution comes from land, which is thrown to the ground in cities and industrial zones, which are then carried by river currents until it ends in the oceans. Million tons per year are transported across the seas. Unfortunately, Accidents often occur at sea and oil spill in the loading and discharge ports. In addition, due to bad practices, the tankers used as ballast and sea water contaminated with oil return. Other ship tanks pump waste oil at sea as waste. Way sea oil pollution comes from the drilling of oil and gas coastal waters and underwater pipeline leaks. (Argue, 1995)
Many of these spills occur in the sea near the coast, which is where naturally inhabit a number of aquatic species and sub-aquatic of all types, including which include seabirds.
Most marine ecosystems exposed to large quantities of crude oil require about 3 years recovering. However, marine ecosystems contaminated by petroleum refining, particularly in estuaries, require 10 years or more for recovery. The oil spill caused by the boat in Florida Barge Cape Cod, in 1969, showed traces of oil in marine sediments and tissues some marine animals, 20 years after the accident. Spilled oil the sea is degraded in a very slow process by bacteria, which can take years even. The way the oil spill affects wildlife is varied and complex. Data accumulated over several oil spills have shown that the best cases only a quarter of the contaminated birds wash ashore dead or alive. The rest lost at sea or sink because they cannot fly. The studies also indicate that the species that spend the night at sea are most affected. The truth is that regardless how contamination occurs in the long run is affected the entire ecosystem, and even states may reach man through the chain food. The food chain (plants - herbivores - animal's carnivores - people) is affected to some degree: the man gets a dose of significant pollution, although the organisms consumed not present evidence of contamination since it is of low concentration and long-term effects.
The most affected are usually the ecosystems that depend on algae and plants. Seagrasses are often most affected. Coral reefs also because many of the algae that live symbiotically with corals can die. Suffering, especially the species that live fixed to the substrate such as sponges and corals, too, that they cannot run against such ...