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Briefly discuss each of the above costs citing some examples

About Holden

Holden as a strong background and started its operations back in 1856 as a saddler business in the South Australia part. Today, Holden is among the top seven fully incorporated General Motors that not only manufactures and sells vehicles but also designs them accordingly. So far Holden has produced 42 different models for its domestic as well as customers outside the country. Holden has made some good vehicles specifically for the Australian market which includes commodore range of sedans, Ute along with caprice. Now from the year of 2011, Holden has also been in to making of Cruze, which is small fuel resourceful car that has lifted the expertise level of Holden to a new height (MAGEE, 2007).

Environmental cost

An organization not only bears cost that is related to its operations but there are some other costs as well that are associated with the company that require more promptly to be addressed now. Among such costs, the most important and hot topic is making cars while not affecting the surrounding environment and keeping your environment healthy beside doing mass production on daily basis. Environmental cost can be defined as the cost associated with the possible or real wear and tear of natural occurring assets due to the company's operations. For example if the manufacturing plant is placed in such an area which is being effected by company's operations then the company is liable to bear costs in order to restore the prior environment which has been affected by company's manufacturing.

Physical environmental cost

Physical cost can be explained by the cost incurred in the usage of the data, its flow and in the ending up of the water, energy, wastes and material. The reason for its importance is the cost associated in the use of materials like water and energy along with the generation of waste, are directly connected to many environmental changes because of organizational activities. Cost incurred for the purchase of materials is among the important cost driver in most of the organizations. Costs like purchasing of raw material, cost incurred in the obtaining and usage of energy are good example of physical costs.

Monetary environmental cost

Monetary cost is the amount associated with the organization's expenses that it bears while making huge productions and are more likely to be based on the market prices. Monetary costs are equally important as physical costs in order to understand the relationship of values in-between natural resources and economy but they don't serve the purpose independently in order to achieve a sustainable growth. Monetary cost can be understood by the example of a shipping company that spills the oil into the sea. Cost incurred or beard by the company for spilling the oil into the sea is its monetary cost.

ii. Do your companies report on any of these costs in their sustainability reports?

Form the evaluation of the reports of Toyota Company, we can say that the company has been making some contribution into ...
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