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Literature Review

[Name of the institute]Literature Review

Historical Background

The notion of human dependence on ecosystems on Earth dates back to the beginning of the existence of the human species , as it benefited from the products of nature for food and for protection against the harsh climate. Recognition of how ecosystems can provide complex services to humans dates back to Plato (c. 400 a.), who understood that deforestation could lead to the erosion of the earth and drying of springs. No But modern ideas of ecosystem services probably began with Marsh in 1864, when he challenged the idea that the natural resources of the Earth are unlimited, noting the changes in soil fertility in the Mediterranean. However, his observations and cautions passed unnoticed at the time and it was not until the 1940s that the matter drew attention again. During this time, the three main authors - Osborn Vogt, and Leopold - awakened and promoted recognition of human dependence on the environment, with the notion of “natural capital” (Isbell, et. al., 2011, pp. 199-202).

The woods and forests are extremely valuable to humans for timber and non-timber plant products growing on them. But their usefulness goes far beyond. Providing a range of indirect benefits, but no less important to the economies and human welfare, commonly called environmental services. The financial contribution of these services has traditionally been under-recognized, in part because of the difficulty to value them economically and complexity of factors that affect their operation. However, its value to global economies is immense(Johnson, Chris E., et al., 2000, pp.159-184).

Publication of Ecosystem services

Forests and jungles are home to a great diversity of plants, fungi, insects, mammals, reptiles and wild birds that are exploited as food, ornamental objects, medicines or simply as raw materials for the manufacture of other materials. The bodies of these species also play important ecological functions such as pollination of many species of wild and agricultural plant pest control. In addition, bacteria and other microorganisms that inhabit the forest floor contribute to the decomposition of organic matter and recycling of nutrients that increase fertility and promote soil formation, hence one of the main non-timber products these ecosystems is the forest soil sold for gardening (Führer, 2000, pp.29-38). Without the vegetation that holds the soil with their roots would not be possible to build up, as water from rain and wind drag him along.

The trees of the forests are essential to regulate the hydrological cycle. First, promote regularity of precipitation an area continuously pump water from the soil to the atmosphere through plant transpiration. When it rains, a significant amount of water is retained in the foliage, which evaporates also helps keep the humidity and helps to re-precipitated as rain. Trees and tropical forests also have with their roots and stubble appropriate conditions for a gradual infiltration of rainwater into the ground, which promotes recharge and maintenance of rivers and springs. This also prevents the formation of surface runoff in large volumes cause soil erosion and flooding devastating basin ...
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