Prostate cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the prostate gland, which is located below the bladder (Wigle et. al., 2008). Most often it occurs in men of middle-aged and elderly. Prostate cancer is a widespread disease, which is a major cause of death for men aged from malignant tumors. There is a trend to increased morbidity and mortality from prostate cancer worldwide. Prostate cancer is most common in men older than 60 years, but lately has not rare cancer cases in men 40-50 years old (IARC Statistics, 2009).
Feature of prostate cancer is its slow and malignant course. The tumor grows slowly (unlike, for example, from liver cancer) and may not manifest for many years. At the same time, prostate cancer gives early metastases. Even a small tumor size may begin to spread to other organs. Before there were metastases, the tumor can be removed and thus stop the disease. But when there were metastases, remove all of them can neither one surgeon, and complete recovery will be impossible (Hultdin et. al., 2005).
The disease is virtually without symptoms until the cancer is not yet grows beyond the prostate gland starts to metastasize. Most often fall into the bone metastases - pelvis, hip, spine, and the lungs, liver, adrenal glands (Männistö et. al., 2003).
To date, mortality from prostate cancer in men is second only to lung cancer. It most often develops in men older than 45-50 years. The reason for the development of prostate cancer is still unknown, but known risk factors. True, the role of each of them is not completely clear, since the results of research in this area are contradictory (Picard et. al., 2009).
The causes and progression of the disease
Not fully understood. Prostate cancer associated with hormonal changes in older men, in particular, with high levels of testosterone - the male sex hormone. Prostate cancer is hormone-dependent tumors, i.e., tumor growth is stimulated by testosterone. Therefore, men who have testosterone levels in the blood above, the occurrence of prostate cancer and probably for him is to be malignant (Hansel et. al., 2007).
Prostate cancer is different slow and malignant course. This means that the tumor is growing slowly (if we compare it with, say, liver cancer), it may not manifest for many years. On the other hand, prostate cancer gives early metastasis, i.e. the small size of the tumor may already begin to spread to other organs. Most often rasprostaranenie goes to the bones (pelvis, hip, and spine), lung, liver, adrenal glands. This is the biggest risk of cancer, before the appearance of metastatic tumor can be removed, and this will stop the disease. But if there were metastases, remove all of them can neither one surgeon, and to completely cure a person would be impossible (Van et. al., 2005).
Manifestations of prostate cancer
Therein lies the biggest problem of cancer - the disease begins to bother him only when it has gone too far and the chances of recovery decreased ...