Betty Neuman Systems Model

Read Complete Research Material

Betty Neuman Systems Model

Betty Neuman Nursing Model and Theory

According to the model, the nursing intervention acts through prevention, and aims to reduce the factors that create stress and adverse conditions that affect or could affect the optimal functioning of a client in a given situation. Nursing intervention is carried out by levels of prevention, these are: primary prevention, secondary prevention and tertiary prevention (Balita, 2005).

Primary attention is performed before the person comes into contact with a producing strain. The goal is to prevent the producer strain to penetrate the normal line of defense or decrease the degree of reaction by reducing the possibility of facing the producer strain, weakening its strength.

Secondary prevention is desirable after the producer strain penetrates the normal line of defense. The care includes timely attention, planning and evaluations of interventions related to symptoms.

Tertiary prevention accompanies the restoration of equilibrium. The focus is on rehabilitation to prevent the same thing happen again, rehabilitation, and maintenance of stability.

Neuman believes that nurses must care for the whole person, which is a unique profession that must deal with all the variables that affect the individual cope with stress. The nurse perception influences the care provided.

Theoretical Model Sources

The Neuman systems model is based on General Systems Theory and reflects the nature of organisms as open systems. The general systems theory states that all elements of a complex organization interact with each other (Kozier, 2004). This model is synthesized with the knowledge from different disciplines, and incorporates its own philosophical beliefs and experience nursing, especially in the field of mental health. This model also uses and uses elements of:

The Gestalt theory: this describes homeostasis as a process from which an organism maintains the balance and therefore health. Since there are many needs and each can cause loss of balance or stability in the patient, the adjustment process is dynamic and ongoing and this changes when there is an imbalance in the body.


The Neuman systems model introduces the concept of person as a customer / client system that may be an individual, a family, group, community or social problem. The client system is a composite dynamic interrelationship between the physiological, psychological, sociocultural, and spiritual development. It is considered that the client changes or moves constantly and is seen as an open system that interacts with the environment interact.


Neuman believes that his work is a model of welfare. For her, health is a continuous ...
Related Ads