Journal Article Review

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Journal Article Review

Journal Article Review


Mary Ann Foley and Jaffrey Foy described a reported experiment on the possible role of list specific and spontaneous imagery cues on effect of pictorial encoding that was introduced by Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) task. First they presented the words and pictures before the participants and then asked to remember the pattern in which they were presented. Participants were asked to report their “seeing” picture that was presented in the form of words. An effect is anticipated Imaginal-activation hypothesis. During the encoding, when unessential images experienced by participants, it would be a mistaken memory for images.

Inexperience 1 and 2, they checked whether the participant had made the mis-attribution of the same image in pertained lures. This is dependent on the pattern of lures' respective thematic list that was experienced by the participant while encoding.


The DRM Paradigm

Word lists were utilized in the present study to demonstrate a false memory effect. As background, a seminal study by Deese (1959) provided evidence for false memories. He demonstrated that false recall can occur following the presentation of word lists. Roediger and McDermott (1995) replicated Deese's (1959) study; using the lists that Deese had found evoked the most false recall. This extension of Deese's research and the ability of the design to demonstrate false memory errors became recognized like the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm (DRM). Roediger and McDermott (1995) presented subjects with several lists of words constructed so that all the words in a list were associated with a critical (non-presented) word. After the subjects had studied the word lists, they were asked to remind the words and often mistakenly recalled the non-presented lure words, such as sweet. Because the present study is directly related to the DRM paradigm, some additional pertinent details regarding the two experiments conducted by Roediger and McDermott (1995) are given here.

In their first experiment, the subjects heard and recalled the lists and then completed a recognition test on both studied and unstudied items. Roediger and McDermott's research showed that the critical non-presented items such as sweet were recalled at about the same level as items presented in the middle of the lists.

Their second experiment demonstrated the strength of false memories. Roediger and McDermott (1995) found that false recognition responses were frequently made with high confidence or were frequently accompanied by 'remember' judgments whereby the subject claimed to be able to mentally 'relive' the experience. These responses may have occurred because the lists contained words that were associated with the critical non-presented words or words of similar concepts, and although the critical words were not presented, they were the prototypes from which each list was generated. Therefore, the lists encouraged schematic processing.

Roediger and McDermott's experiments highlighted the role of retrieval processes in false recall and false recognition. False remembering may arise from repeated attempts at retrieval. Subjects in the experiment generally recalled the critical word toward the end of the set of their list of recalled items, which suggests that preceding recall of related items may trigger false ...
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