Malaria is one of the most important tropical diseases and is reportable. It occurs mainly in the tropics and subtropics. It is now estimated that nearly half the world's population lives in malaria areas. Malaria is transmitted by the bite of female anopheles mosquito that is infected with a malaria parasite. An infection from human to human is almost impossible. The Malaria is an infection of red blood cells caused by Plasmodium, a unicellular organism. This infection is one of the oldest diseases. There is evidence suggesting its presence in the primeval man and is described in Egyptian papyri and Chinese myths, which is defined as the joint action of three demons. One with a hammer (symbol of the headache), another with a bucket of ice water (representing the chills) and one with a fiery furnace (fever).
Malaria can be caused by four different types of pathogen. Of the three currently existing forms of falciparum, malaria is the most dangerous. While malaria tertian and quartan malaria, the most pleasant run, leads the malaria tropica, often life-threatening complications (Brown 1984, pp. 847).
Despite wide control programs, the spread of malaria in recent years has increased. In addition, the causative agent of malaria is present in many parts of South, Southeast and East Asia. The prevention measures must therefore, be tailored to the regional risks. Malaria causes annually about 350-500 million infections and about 1.3 to 3million deaths in humans. The Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 85-90% of these cases, the giant majority of infected children are younger than 5 years. Mortality is expected to double over the next 20 years.Causes and Transmission of Malaria
Malaria is caused by the single-celled blood parasites Plasmodium, which infect the red blood cells. This Malaria is caused by certain mosquitoes (Anopheles Mosquito) transferred locally. They multiply and bring the blood cells to explode, after their development is complete. The released pathogens, in turn, seek new blood cells and the cycle begins again. Typical of all forms of malaria are high fever attacks. They occur in tertian malaria about every three days and in quartan malaria on all four days. The fever in the case of malaria tropica repeats at irregular intervals.Symptoms of Malaria
The clinical manifestations of malaria are very diverse. Malaria begins with a fever of 8-30 days after infection, which may be accompanied in the form headaches, muscle aches, a weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, and cough. Typical cycles of alternating fever, shivering with cold sweats and sweating, can then occur: it is the "malaria". The periodicity of these cycles depends on the parasite species involved, and coincides with the multiplication of parasites and the breakdown of red blood cells, which also leads to anemia. Malaria falciparum can be fatal if not treated. In some cases, the infected red blood cells can block blood vessels supplying the brain: cerebral malaria is often fatal. In areas where malaria is highly endemic, people are so often that they end up being infected naturally ...