Osteoporosis Knowledge and Health Beliefs among African American Women Residing in the Baltimore Washington Metropolitan area using the Health Belief Model
A: SPECIFIC AIMS
Outline of the Research
This dissertation will be based on the topic of “Osteoporosis Knowledge and Health Beliefs among African American Women Residing in the Baltimore Washington Metropolitan area using the Health Belief Model”. The first chapter will provide an introduction to the topic including the purpose and significance of the study. The second chapter will present a review of relevant literature, highlighting the previous research carried out in this field. The third chapter would be covering the methodology for this study. The analysis of findings and discussion will be presented in the fourth chapter. The fifth chapter will conclude the dissertation, providing implications and useful recommendations for further research.
Osteoporosis is defined by the National Institutes of Health (2007) as a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength, predisposing to an increase risk of fracture. Osteoporosis is a serious public health concern that affects both men and women. It is more common in Caucasian women but is a growing concern for men and other ethnicities (Tung & Lee, 2006). It is estimated that ten million individuals have osteoporosis and another thirty-four million suffer from low bone density (NOF, “America's Bone Health,” 2002). By 2020, approximately sixty-one million individuals will have osteoporosis or low bone density (NOF, “America's Bone Health,” 2002). As bone strength decreases, the risk of fractures increases. The increase risk of fractures leads to increased morbidity and mortality of individuals living in the United States (Sharp & Thombs, 2003). It is projected that one in two women and one in four men over age fifty will experience an osteoporotic related fracture (National Institute of Health [NIH], 2007). The estimated cost of osteoporosis will rise to $200 billion by 2040 if prevention efforts do not improve (McBean, Forgac, & Calvert, 1994).
Rationale of the study
Osteoporosis can develop in many ways. Some of the most important means that may lead to osteoporosis are as follows: genetics, lifestyle, nutrition, calcium and vitamin D deficiency, and decrease in sex hormone production (USDHHS, 2004). Corrective action must be taken through such changes as diet and physical activity to potentially slow down bone loss which may lead to osteoporosis (Riggs, Khosla, & Melton, 2002). For women, the rapid phase of bone loss occurs around the time of menopause (Raisz & Rodan, 2003; Riggs, Khosla, & Melton, 2002) and then a slower continuous phase of bone loss continues throughout the rest of life (Riggs, Khosla, & Melton, 2002). Both the rapid phase and slow phase of bone loss are a result of estrogen deficiency. Bone formation also begins to decrease with age which causes an imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation. This imbalance leads to structural abnormalities, thinning of the cortical outer shell and damage to the trabecular bone structure, that make the skeleton fragile (Ahlborg, Johnell, Turner, Rannevik, & Karlsson, 2003).
Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study was to determine the level of ...