Training Need Analysis (Tna)

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Training Need Analysis (TNA)

Training Need Analysis (TNA)

Q 1)


The training needs assessment is a critical activity for the training and development function. Whether you are a human resource generalist or a specialist, you should be adept at performing a training needs assessment. This paper will begin with an overview of the training and development function and how the needs assessment fits into this process, followed by an in-depth look at the core concepts and steps involved in conducting a training needs assessment.


Designing a training and development program involves a sequence of steps that can be grouped into five phases: needs assessment, instructional objectives, design, implementation and evaluation. To be effective and efficient, all training programs must start with a needs assessment. Long before any actual training occurs, the training manager must determine the who, what, when, where, why and how of training. To do this, the training manager must analyze as much information as possible about the following:

• Organization and its goals and objectives.

• Jobs and related tasks that need to be learned.

• Competencies and skills that are need to perform the job.

• Individuals who are to be trained.

Overview of Training and Development

The first step in designing a training and development program is to conduct a needs assessment. The assessment begins with a "need" which can be identified in several ways but is generally described as a gap between what is currently in place and what is needed, now and in the future. Gaps can include discrepancies/differences between:

• What the organization expects to happen and what actually happens.

• Current and desired job performance.

• Existing and desired competencies and skills.

Needs assessment can also be used to assist with:

• Competencies and performance of work teams.

• Problem solving or productivity issues.

• The need to prepare for and respond to future changes in the organization or job duties.

The results of the needs assessment allows the training manager to set the training objectives by answering two very basic questions: who, if anyone, needs training and what training is needed. Sometimes training is not the solution. Some performance gaps can be reduced or eliminated through other management solutions such as communicating expectations, providing a supportive work environment, arranging consequences, removing obstacles and checking job fit. Once the needs assessment is completed and training objectives are clearly identified, the design phase of the training and development process is initiated:

• Select the internal or external person or resource to design and develop the training.

• Select and design the program content.

• Select the techniques used to facilitate learning (lecture, role play, simulation, etc.).

• Select the appropriate setting (on the job, classroom, etc.).

• Select the materials to be used in delivering the training (work books, videos, etc.).

• Identify and train instructors (if internal).

After completing the design phase, the training is ready for implementation:

• Schedule classes, facilities and participants.

• Schedule instructors to teach.

• Prepare materials and deliver them to scheduled locations.

• Conduct the training.

The final phase in the training and development program is evaluation of the program to determine whether the training objectives ...
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